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Faculty Bio
Benjamin Boyd
DPTSc, PT
Education
University of California, Santa Cruz; BA; Environmental Studies; 1995 University of California, San Francisco / San Francisco State University; MS; Physical Therapy; 2002 University of California, San Francisco / San Francisco State University; DPTSc; Physical Therapy; 2008
Teaching Interest
Since 2004, I have been teaching in courses focused on foundational knowledge (such as anatomy and research) as well as clinically applied courses (such as Musculoskeletal Patient/Client Management) in Physical Therapy programs. I particularly enjoy helping students learn the foundational principles of rehabilitation and apply them to clinical practice. I currently have the unique opportunity to work with students from their first graduate school semester through to their last academic semester. I get great satisfaction out of seeing our SMU PT student's growth over their time in the PT program and have the privilege of being in a position to help facilitate their development into a professional health care practitioners.
Courses Taught
PT 711: Patient/Client Management I
PT 712: Patient/Client Management II
PT 716: Patient/Client Management III
PT 751: Case studies I
PT 752: Case studies II
PT 755: Research I
Research Biography
My research interests include the mechanosensitivity of the nervous system during limb movement and function through the use of neurodynamic testing. This includes examination of the biomechanical properties of the nervous system through ultrasound imaging and physiological responses to peripheral nerve movement through electromyographic, symptomatic and range of motion examinations. In particular, I am interested in the effects of nerve injury on nerve mobility, sensitivity and limb function. Recent studies have included the impact of peripheral neuropathy and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on lower extremity mechanosensitivity. My current research focuses on the alterations in muscle tone, symptom reproduction and limitations in mobility produced by specific limb movements in the upper and lower extremity in an effort to establish the response of the healthy and injured nervous system to movement.
Peer Reviewed Publications
PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS:
1. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Gan J, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. J Orthop Res, 2005;23(4):764-770.
2. Topp KS, Boyd BS. Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerve: nerve’s responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapy practice. Phys Ther. 2006;86(1):92-109.
3. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Noble-Haeusslein L, Constance J, Trivedi A, Topp KS. Deviations in gait pattern in experimental models of hindlimb paresis demonstrated by a novel pressure mapping system. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85(10):2272-2283.
4. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity of the lower extremity nervous system during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(11):780-790.
5. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:75.
6. Boyd BS. Normal inter-limb asymmetries and neurogenic responses during upper limb neurodynamic testing: implications for test interpretation. J Hand Ther. 2012;25(1):56-64.
7. Boyd BS. Psychometric properties of a hand-held inclinometer during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing. Physiother. 2012;98(2):174-179.
8. Legakis A, Boyd BS. The influence of scapular depression on upper limb neurodynamic test responses. J Man Manip Ther. 2012;20(2):75-82.
9. Topp KS, Boyd BS. Peripheral nerve: from the microscopic functional unit of the axon to the biomechanically loaded macroscopic structure. J Hand Ther. 2012;25(2): 142-151.
10. Boyd BS, Gray AT, Dilley A, Wanek L, Topp KS. The pattern of tibial nerve excursion with active ankle dorsiflexion is different in older people with diabetes mellitus. Clin Biomech. 2012;27(9):967-971.
11. Boyd BS, Villa PS. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:245.
12. Boyd BS, Topp KS, Coppieters MW. Impact of movement sequencing on sciatic and tibial nerve strain and excursion during the straight leg raise test in embalmed cadavers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; in press.
14. Boyd BS, Dilley A. Altered tibial nerve biomechanics in patients with diabetes mellitus. Muscle Nerve. 2013. doi: 10.1002/mus.24155. [Epub ahead of print].

DISSERTATION:
1. Boyd BS. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Neuropathy on Mechanosensitivity of Lower Extremity Neurodynamic Testing [dissertation]. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco; 2008.

Peer Reviewed National & International Presentations
POSTER PRESENTATIONS:
1. Boyd BS, La Greca M, Parker K, Stadtjerr E, Appleford T, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. CPTA Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, October 23, 2004.
2. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Gan J, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. Experimental Biology Conference, March 4, 2005.
3. Boyd, BS, Puttlitz C, Satyendra L, Topp KS. Nerve biomechanics and features of gait are altered in rats after mild crush injury to the sciatic nerve. Experimental Biology Conference, April 30, 2006.
4. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Topp KS. Translational comparisons of altered nerve biomechanics and functional assays in focal sciatic nerve compression injuries and systemic disease. Graduate Student Association Career and Research Day, University of California, San Francisco, February 28, 2007.
5. Boyd BS, Keeney-Roe A, Gray AT, Topp KS. Ultrasound imaging of the tibial and common fibular nerves in the popliteal fossa during lower extremity limb movements. Experimental Biology Conference, April 8, 2008.
6. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy on mechanosensitivity of lower extremity neurodynamic testing. CPTA Annual Conference, Oakland, CA, September 27, 2008.
7. Villa P, Boyd BS. Reliability and validity of a hand-held inclinometer during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals. CPTA Annual Conference, Oakland, CA, October 1, 2010.
8. Boyd BS. Inter-limb comparisons during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals: implications for test interpretation. CPTA Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, September 22, 2011.

PLATFORM PRESENTATIONS:
1. Boyd BS. Ankle position affects pain, muscle activity and range of motion during a straight leg raise neurodynamic test in healthy controls. International Federation of Orthopaedic and Manipulative Therapists Conference, Rotterdam, Netherlands, June 12, 2008.
2. Boyd BS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Neuro Orthopaedic Institute Conference on Neurodynamics and the Neuromatrix, Nottingham, United Kingdom, April 16, 2010.
3. Boyd BS. Nerve excursion and overall limb flexibility in people with Diabetes Mellitus. Neuro Orthopaedic Institute Conference on Neurodynamics and the Neuromatrix, Adelaide, Australia, April 28, 2012.
Grants & Fellowships
RESEARCH GRANTS:
1. California Physical Therapy Fund (06/2002-06/2003): $2500.
Mechanical neurodynamics in the sciatic nerve of sprague-dawley rats following acute local compression injury.
2. Graduate Student Research Award (04/2007-05/2008): $2000.
Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy on mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing.
3. Faculty Research Grant (05/2009): $2000.
The effects of scapular depression on mechanosensitivity during upper limb neurodynamic testing.
4. AVP Faculty Research Incentive Award (12/2009): $10,000.
Mechanosensitivity during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing.
5. Faculty Research Grant (04/2011): $1615.
Impacts of neurodynamic exercise on lower limb flexibility and peripheral nerve biomechanics in people with diabetes.

RESEARCH AWARDS:
2012 First Time Writer's Award, The American Society of Hand Therapists, for paper entitled, “Common interlimb asymmetries and neurogenic responses during upper limb neurodynamic testing: implications for test interpretation”
Professional and Community Service and Professional Memberships
PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
Memberships
2000 – present American Physical Therapy Association (Section membership: Orthopaedic, Research, Education)
Service to Professional Organizations
2006 – 2007 California Physical Therapy Association, Golden Gate District Assembly Representative
2009 - present California Physical Therapy Association, Golden Gate District Assembly Representative
2013 – present Neuro Orthopedic Institute; Faculty; USA division
2012 – present Anjoe Physical Therapy and Wellness; Physical Therapist; Emeryville, California

UNIVERSITY SERVICE:
2008 – 2010 Member of Technology Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2008 – present Member of Faculty Organization at Samuel Merritt University
2010 – present Member of Faculty Organization Research Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2012 – 2013 Chair of Faculty Organization Research Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2013 - present Member of the SMU Institutional Review Board

PUBLIC SERVICE:
2011 - 2012 American Diabetes Association, StepOut: Walk to Stop Diabetes, Oakland, CA (volunteer at Healthy Living Fair)

Contact Info

Name
Benjamin Boyd
DPTSc, PT
Title
Associate Professor
Department
Doctor of Physical Therapy
Email

Faculty Profile

Benjamin Boyd
Benjamin
Boyd
DPTSc, PT
Associate Professor
Doctor of Physical Therapy
bboyd1@samuelmerritt.edu
510-869-6511
University of California, Santa Cruz; BA; Environmental Studies; 1995 University of California, San Francisco / San Francisco State University; MS; Physical Therapy; 2002 University of California, San Francisco / San Francisco State University; DPTSc; Physical Therapy; 2008
Since 2004, I have been teaching in courses focused on foundational knowledge (such as anatomy and research) as well as clinically applied courses (such as Musculoskeletal Patient/Client Management) in Physical Therapy programs. I particularly enjoy helping students learn the foundational principles of rehabilitation and apply them to clinical practice. I currently have the unique opportunity to work with students from their first graduate school semester through to their last academic semester. I get great satisfaction out of seeing our SMU PT student's growth over their time in the PT program and have the privilege of being in a position to help facilitate their development into a professional health care practitioners.
PT 711: Patient/Client Management I
PT 712: Patient/Client Management II
PT 716: Patient/Client Management III
PT 751: Case studies I
PT 752: Case studies II
PT 755: Research I
My research interests include the mechanosensitivity of the nervous system during limb movement and function through the use of neurodynamic testing. This includes examination of the biomechanical properties of the nervous system through ultrasound imaging and physiological responses to peripheral nerve movement through electromyographic, symptomatic and range of motion examinations. In particular, I am interested in the effects of nerve injury on nerve mobility, sensitivity and limb function. Recent studies have included the impact of peripheral neuropathy and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on lower extremity mechanosensitivity. My current research focuses on the alterations in muscle tone, symptom reproduction and limitations in mobility produced by specific limb movements in the upper and lower extremity in an effort to establish the response of the healthy and injured nervous system to movement.
PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS:
1. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Gan J, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. J Orthop Res, 2005;23(4):764-770.
2. Topp KS, Boyd BS. Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerve: nerve’s responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapy practice. Phys Ther. 2006;86(1):92-109.
3. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Noble-Haeusslein L, Constance J, Trivedi A, Topp KS. Deviations in gait pattern in experimental models of hindlimb paresis demonstrated by a novel pressure mapping system. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85(10):2272-2283.
4. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity of the lower extremity nervous system during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(11):780-790.
5. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:75.
6. Boyd BS. Normal inter-limb asymmetries and neurogenic responses during upper limb neurodynamic testing: implications for test interpretation. J Hand Ther. 2012;25(1):56-64.
7. Boyd BS. Psychometric properties of a hand-held inclinometer during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing. Physiother. 2012;98(2):174-179.
8. Legakis A, Boyd BS. The influence of scapular depression on upper limb neurodynamic test responses. J Man Manip Ther. 2012;20(2):75-82.
9. Topp KS, Boyd BS. Peripheral nerve: from the microscopic functional unit of the axon to the biomechanically loaded macroscopic structure. J Hand Ther. 2012;25(2): 142-151.
10. Boyd BS, Gray AT, Dilley A, Wanek L, Topp KS. The pattern of tibial nerve excursion with active ankle dorsiflexion is different in older people with diabetes mellitus. Clin Biomech. 2012;27(9):967-971.
11. Boyd BS, Villa PS. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:245.
12. Boyd BS, Topp KS, Coppieters MW. Impact of movement sequencing on sciatic and tibial nerve strain and excursion during the straight leg raise test in embalmed cadavers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; in press.
14. Boyd BS, Dilley A. Altered tibial nerve biomechanics in patients with diabetes mellitus. Muscle Nerve. 2013. doi: 10.1002/mus.24155. [Epub ahead of print].

DISSERTATION:
1. Boyd BS. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Neuropathy on Mechanosensitivity of Lower Extremity Neurodynamic Testing [dissertation]. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco; 2008.

POSTER PRESENTATIONS:
1. Boyd BS, La Greca M, Parker K, Stadtjerr E, Appleford T, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. CPTA Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, October 23, 2004.
2. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Gan J, Topp KS. Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury. Experimental Biology Conference, March 4, 2005.
3. Boyd, BS, Puttlitz C, Satyendra L, Topp KS. Nerve biomechanics and features of gait are altered in rats after mild crush injury to the sciatic nerve. Experimental Biology Conference, April 30, 2006.
4. Boyd BS, Puttlitz C, Topp KS. Translational comparisons of altered nerve biomechanics and functional assays in focal sciatic nerve compression injuries and systemic disease. Graduate Student Association Career and Research Day, University of California, San Francisco, February 28, 2007.
5. Boyd BS, Keeney-Roe A, Gray AT, Topp KS. Ultrasound imaging of the tibial and common fibular nerves in the popliteal fossa during lower extremity limb movements. Experimental Biology Conference, April 8, 2008.
6. Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy on mechanosensitivity of lower extremity neurodynamic testing. CPTA Annual Conference, Oakland, CA, September 27, 2008.
7. Villa P, Boyd BS. Reliability and validity of a hand-held inclinometer during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals. CPTA Annual Conference, Oakland, CA, October 1, 2010.
8. Boyd BS. Inter-limb comparisons during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals: implications for test interpretation. CPTA Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, September 22, 2011.

PLATFORM PRESENTATIONS:
1. Boyd BS. Ankle position affects pain, muscle activity and range of motion during a straight leg raise neurodynamic test in healthy controls. International Federation of Orthopaedic and Manipulative Therapists Conference, Rotterdam, Netherlands, June 12, 2008.
2. Boyd BS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Neuro Orthopaedic Institute Conference on Neurodynamics and the Neuromatrix, Nottingham, United Kingdom, April 16, 2010.
3. Boyd BS. Nerve excursion and overall limb flexibility in people with Diabetes Mellitus. Neuro Orthopaedic Institute Conference on Neurodynamics and the Neuromatrix, Adelaide, Australia, April 28, 2012.
RESEARCH GRANTS:
1. California Physical Therapy Fund (06/2002-06/2003): $2500.
Mechanical neurodynamics in the sciatic nerve of sprague-dawley rats following acute local compression injury.
2. Graduate Student Research Award (04/2007-05/2008): $2000.
Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy on mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing.
3. Faculty Research Grant (05/2009): $2000.
The effects of scapular depression on mechanosensitivity during upper limb neurodynamic testing.
4. AVP Faculty Research Incentive Award (12/2009): $10,000.
Mechanosensitivity during straight leg raise neurodynamic testing.
5. Faculty Research Grant (04/2011): $1615.
Impacts of neurodynamic exercise on lower limb flexibility and peripheral nerve biomechanics in people with diabetes.

RESEARCH AWARDS:
2012 First Time Writer's Award, The American Society of Hand Therapists, for paper entitled, “Common interlimb asymmetries and neurogenic responses during upper limb neurodynamic testing: implications for test interpretation”
PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
Memberships
2000 – present American Physical Therapy Association (Section membership: Orthopaedic, Research, Education)
Service to Professional Organizations
2006 – 2007 California Physical Therapy Association, Golden Gate District Assembly Representative
2009 - present California Physical Therapy Association, Golden Gate District Assembly Representative
2013 – present Neuro Orthopedic Institute; Faculty; USA division
2012 – present Anjoe Physical Therapy and Wellness; Physical Therapist; Emeryville, California

UNIVERSITY SERVICE:
2008 – 2010 Member of Technology Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2008 – present Member of Faculty Organization at Samuel Merritt University
2010 – present Member of Faculty Organization Research Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2012 – 2013 Chair of Faculty Organization Research Committee at Samuel Merritt University
2013 - present Member of the SMU Institutional Review Board

PUBLIC SERVICE:
2011 - 2012 American Diabetes Association, StepOut: Walk to Stop Diabetes, Oakland, CA (volunteer at Healthy Living Fair)

History

Member for
6 years 2 weeks