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Faculty Bio
Bruce Richardson
PhD
I received my BA in Biology and MS in Zoology at San Diego State University. I earned my Doctorate in Anatomy with a minor in Physiology at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center. After which I completed a post-doctoral position at the Health Science Center at the University of Texas at San Antonio.
I have taught MD, OD, PT, PA, DDS, students as well as DPM students.
Teaching Interest


Physiology of the Pineal Gland
Biochemistry and Physiological



Effects of Melatonin
Morphological and physiological parameters of the mammalian adenohypophysis (immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay and TEM) and its role in reproduction.



Neuroendocrine-reproductive (esp. mammalian pineal and hypothalamus).
Neuroendocrine-renal (esp. mammalian pineal and hypothalamus).



Effects of very low frequency electromagnetic fields on the cell biology of the pineal gland and brain neurotransmitter metabolism.



Influences of very low frequency electromagnetic fields on wound healing.



Effects of Melatonin on Diabetes mellitus.


Courses Taught


PM701 Human Anatomy I



PM709 Lower Extremity Anatomy



PM710 Human Anatomy II



PM780 Introduction to Human Anatomy/Human Embryology


Peer Reviewed Publications


Partial List:



Symposium on the Comparative Aspects of Reproduction in Chiroptera, Albuquerque, NM, 1978 (invited speaker).



Symposium on the Pineal and Its Hormones, Caribbean cruise, 1982 (invited speaker).Symposium on chronobiology; Ninth International Congress on Photobiology, Philadelphia, PA, 1984 (invited speaker).



Seventh International conference on Immunology and Aging, Crete, Greece, 2003 (invited speaker).



Journal Articles:



Richardson, B.A. The anterior pituitary and reproduction in bats. J. Reprod. Fert. 56: 379-389, 1979.



Blask, D.E., J.L. Nodelman, C.A. Leadem, and B.A. Richardson. Influence of exogeneously administered melatonin on the reproductive system and prolactin levels in underfed male rats. Biol. Reprod. 22: 507-512, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., L.Y. Johnson, R.W. Steger, B.A. Richardson, and L.J. Petterborg. Pineal biosynthetic activity and neuroendocrine physiology in the aging hamster and gerbil. Peptides 1: 69-77, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, B.N. Ferguson, and D.T. Dinh. Pineal melatonin rhythm: reduction in aging Syrian hamster. Science 210: 1372-1373, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, and E.C. Hurlbut. Pineal, retinal and Harderian gland melatonin in a diurnal species, the Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Neurosci. Lett. 22: 285-288, 1981.



Richardson, B.A., M.K. Vaughan, G.C. Brainard, J.J. Huerter, R. de los Santos and R.J. Reiter. Influence of morning melatonin injections on the antigonadotropic effects of afternoon melatonin administration in male and female hamsters. Neuroendocrinology 33: 112-117, 1981.



Richardson, B.A. Identification of prolactin and growth hormone cells in the pars distalis of the California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus. Am. J. Anat. 161: 427-440, 1981.



Blask, D.E., C.A. Leadem, and B.A. Richardson. Nutritional status, time of day and pinealectomy: factors influencing the sensitivity of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis of the rat to melatonin. Horm. Res. 14: 104-113, 1981.



Richardson, B.A. Localization of gonadotrophic hormones in the pituitary gland of the California leaf-nosed bat (Macrotus californicus). Cell Tiss. Res. 220: 115-123, 1981.



Vaughan, M.K., J.R. McGill, B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, P. Pevet, C. Neacsu, and R.J. Reiter. Responsiveness of a prolactin-secreting clonal cell line (2B8) of male rat hemipituitaries to incubation with arginine vasotocin, threonylserinyllysine (TSL) or a partially purified peptide (E5) from bovine pineal glands. Neuroendocrinology Lett. 3: 189-194, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., C.M. Craft, J.E. Johnson, Jr., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, G.M. Vaughan, and M.K. Vaughan. Age-associated reduction in nocturnal pineal melatonin levels in female rats. Endocrinology 109: 1295-1297, 1981.



Petterborg, L.J., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Effect of long or short photoperiod on pineal melatonin content in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Life Sci. 29: 1623-1627, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, and L.Y. Johnson. Pineal actions and mechanisms in reproductive physiology. Jikeikai Med. J., 28 (Suppl. 1): 35-46, 1981.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. The effect of different light intensities on pineal melatonin content. Brain Res. 233: 75-81, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., M.C. Powanda, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, L.Y. Johnson, R.J. Reiter. Chronic exposure to short photoperiod inhibits free thyroxine index and plasma levels of TSH, T4, Triiodothyronine (T3) and cholesterol in female Syrian hamsters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71A: 615-618, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, and K.Y. Kosub. A 15-minute light pulse during darkness prevents the antigonadotrophic action of afternoon melatonin injections in male hamsters. Int. J. Biometeor. 26: 295-303, 1982.



King, T.S., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Age-associated changes in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the male gerbil. Endocr. Res. Comm. 8: 253-262, 1982.



King, T.S., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Regulation of rat pineal melatonin synthesis: effect of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Molec. Cell. Endocr. 25: 327-338, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, M.A. Karsek, and J.T. Hansen. Failure of room light to inhibit pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in a diurnal species, the Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). Neuroendocr. Lett. 4: 1-6, 1982.



Johnson, L.Y., M.K. Vaughan, B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. Variation in pineal melatonin content during the estrous cycle of the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 169: 416-419, 1982.



Richardson, B.A., T.S. King, L.J. Petterborg, M.K. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of large doses of melatonin administered in the afternoon on the neuroendocrine-reproductive system of female Syrian hamsters maintained either in a long or short photoperiod. Biomed. Res. 3: 61-69, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, R.J. Reiter, P. Pevet, and C. Neascu. Effects of a bovine pineal peptidic fraction (E5) on plasma and pituitary levels of LH, FSH and prolactin. Experientia 38: 871-872, 1982.



Vriend, J., B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, L.Y. Johnson, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of melatonin on thyroid physiology of female hamster. Neuroendocrinology 35: 79-85, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, and E.C. Hurlbut. Studies on pineal melatonin levels in a diurnal species, the Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus): Effects of light at night, propranolol administration or superior cervical ganglionectomy. J. Neural Transm. 54: 275-284, 1982.



Karasek, M., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, J.T. Hansen, and R.J. Reiter. Day-night differences in the number of pineal "synaptic" ribbons in two diurnal rodents, the chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and the ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Cell. Tiss. Res. 224: 689-692, 1982.



Brainard, G.C., L.J. Petterborg, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Pineal melatonin in Syrian hamsters: circadian and seasonal rhythms in animals maintained under laboratory and natural conditions. Neuroendocrinology 35: 342-348, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, C.M. Craft, M.C. Powanda, and R.J. Reiter. Interaction of aging, photoperiod and melatonin on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol levels in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Gerontology 28: 345-353, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, S.A. Matthews, S.J. Lane, and B.N. Ferguson. Rhythms in immunoreactive melatonin in the retina and Harderian gland of rats: Persistence after pinealectomy. Life Sci. 32: 1229-1236, 1983.



Spanel-Borowski, K., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. Follicular growth, intra-ovarian, and extra-ovarian oocyte release after daily injections of melatonin and 6-chloro-melatonin in the Syrian hamster. Amer. J. Anat. 167: 371-380, 1983.



Richardson, B.A., M.K. Vaughan, L.J. Petterborg, L.Y. Johnson, T.S. King, I. Smith, and R.J. Reiter. Natural and synthetic analogues of melatonin and related compounds. I. Effects on the reproductive system of the male Syrian hamster. J. Neural Trans. 56: 187-197, 1983.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, L.J. Petterborg, M.C. Powanda, R.J. Reiter, and I. Smith. Natural and synthetic analogues of melatonin. II. Effects on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol levels in male Syrian hamsters. J. Neural Trans. 56: 279-291, 1983.



Reiter, R.J., S. Steinlechner, B.A. Richardson, and T.S. King. Differential response of pineal melatonin levels to light at night in laboratory-raised and wild-captured 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). Life. Sci. 32: 2625-2629, 1983.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, G.C. Brainard, S. Steinlechner, and B.A. Richardson. Influence of light irradiance of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity, serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity, and radioimmunoassayble melatonin levels in the pineal gland of the diurnally active Richardson's ground squirrel. Brain Res. 288: 151-157, 1983.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, S.A. Matthews, and R.J. Reiter. The suppression of pineal melatonin content and N-acetyltransferase activity by different light irradiances in the Syrian hamster: A dose-response relationship. Endocrinology 113: 293-296, 1983.



Champney, T.H., G.C. Brainard, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Experimentally-induced diabetes reduces nocturnal pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 76: 199-201, 1983.



Richardson, B.A., P.J. Sheridan, and R.J. Reiter. The absence of nuclear uptake of sex steroid hormones in the pineal gland of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Neuroendocr. Letters. 5: 353-367, 1983.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, S. Steinlechner, S.A. Matthews, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of various irradiances of artificial light, twilight and moonlight on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. J. Pineal Res., 1: 105-119, 1984.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, A.P. Holtrof, G.M. Vaughan, T.H. Champney, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of injections and/or chronic implants of melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine on plasma thyroid hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters. Neuroendocrinol. 39: 361-366, 1984.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Injections and/or implants of 6-chloromelatonin and melatonin: effects on plasma thyroid hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters. Biomed. Res., 5: 413-418, 1984.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of different light spectra on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Brain Res. 294: 333-339, 1984.Vaughan, M.K., L.Y. Johnson, B.A. Richardson, E.G. Brieno, and R.J. Reiter. Acute injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TSH) stimulate prolactin release in unanesthetized adult male Syrian hamsters. Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 6: 49-52, 1984.



Steinlechner, S., T.S. King, T.H. Champney, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Pharmacological studies on the regulation on N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content of the pineal gland of the Syrian hamster. J. Pineal., Res., 2: 109-119, 1985.



Reiter, R.J., S. Steinlechner, and B.A. Richardson. Daytime and nighttime pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in male rats treated with indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 7: 281-287, 1985.



Champney, T.H., S.M. Webb, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Hormonal modulation of cyclic melatonin production in the pineal gland of rats and Syrian hamsters: effects of thyroidectomy or thyroxine implant. Chronobiol. Internat., 2: 177-183, 1985.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Reproductive effects of 6-chloromelatonin implants and/or injections in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Reprod. Fert., 78: 381-387, 1986.



Amador, A.G., B.A. Richardson, H.G. Klemcke, M.K. Vaughan, R.W. Steger, A. Bartke, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of long-term treatment with melatonin or melatonin plus ectopic pituitary transplants receptors in juvenile Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Reprod. Fert., 78: 557-564, 1986.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, S. Steinlechner, R.W. Steger, and B.A. Richardson. Tryptophan administration inhibits nocturnal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the rat pineal gland: Evidence that serotonin modulates melatonin production via a receptor-mediated mechanism. Neuroendocrinology, 52: 291-296, 1990.



Attia, A. M., B. A. Richardson, C. Rodriquez, M. H. Mostafa, S. A. Soliman, A. H. El-Sebae, and R. J. Reiter. Lindane may enhance nocturnal pineal N-acetyltransferase acitivity via ?-adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 554: 253-256, 1991.



Reiter, R. J., and B. A. Richardson. Static magnetic field effects on pineal indoleamine metabolism and possible biological consequences. FASEB J.. 6: 2283-2287, 1992.



Reiter, R. J., and B. A. Richardson. Some Perturbations that Disturb the Circadian Melatonin Rhythm. Chronobiology International, 9: 314-321, 1992.



Richardson, B. A., E. H. Studier, J. N. Stallone, and C. M. Kennedy. Effects of melatonin on water budgets and renal function in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Pineal Res., 13: 49-59, 1992.



Moujir, F, B. A. Richardson, K. Yaga, and R. J. Reiter. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities and melatonin production in cultured rat but not in Syrian hamster pineal glands. J. Pineal Res., 12: 35-42, 1992.



Richardson, B. A., K. Yaga, R. J. Reiter, and D. J. Morton. Pulsed Static Magnetic Field Effects on In-vitro Pineal Indoleamine Metabolism. Biochim. Biophysica Acta, 1137: 59-64, 1992.



Yaga, K., R. J. Reiter, and B. A. Richardson. Tryptophan Loading Increases Daytime Serum Melatonin Levels in Intact and Pinealectomized Rats. Life Sci., 52: 1231-1238, 1993.



Richardson, B. A., K. Yaga, R. J. Reiter, and P. Hoover. Suppression of Nocturnal Pineal N-Acetyltransferase Activity and Melatonin Content by Inverted Magnetic Fields and Induced Eddy Currents. Intern. J. Neurosci., 69: 149-155, 1993.



Attia, A. M., M. H. Mostafa, B. A. Richardson, and R. J. Reiter. Changes in nocturnal pineal indoleamine metabolism in rats treated with parathion are prevented by beta-adrenergic antagonist administration. Toxicology, 97: 183-189, 1995.



Attia, A. M., M. H. Mostafa, B. A. Richardson, and R. J. Reiter. Night-time rise in rat pineal N-acetyltransferase due to carbaryl administration is reduced by propranolol treatment. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 8: 45-53, 1995.



Reviews, Chapters, Monographs:



Reiter, R.J. and B.A. Richardson. The physiology of melatonin. In: Biochemical and Medical Aspects of Trytophan Metabolism, O. Hagaishi, Y. Ishimura, and R. Kido, Ed., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 247-256, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., L.Y. Johnson, M.K. Vaughan, and B.A. Richardson. Pineal constituents and reproductive physiology. In: Physiopathology of Endocrine Diseases and Mechanisms of Hormone Action, D.P. Cardinali, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 163-178, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., W.K. Trakulrungsi, C. Trakulrungsi, J. Vriend, W.W. Morgan, M.K. Vaughan, L.Y. Johnson, and B.A. Richardson. Pineal melatonin production: endocrine and age effects. In: Developmental Neurobiology of the Melatonin Rhythm Generating System, D.C. Klein, Ed., Karger Basel, in press.



Hurlbut, E.C., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. The effects of the light:dark cycle and sympathetically-active drugs on pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the Richardson's ground squirrel, Spermophilus richardsonii. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 45-56, 1982.



King, T.S., R.W. Steger, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Interaction between pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and beta-adrenergetic receptors in the rat pineal gland. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 95-106, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, and L.C.H. Wang. Studies on the regulation of pineal melatonin production in the Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 57-66, 1982.



Richardson, B.A., L.J. Petterborg, M.K. Vaughan, T.S. King, and R.J. Reiter. The effect of twice daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration and/or renal pituitary homografts on melatonin-induced gonadal atrophy in male Syrian hamsters. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 129-142, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., J. Vriend, M.K. Vaughan, W.W. Morgan, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, S.A. Matthews, and C.M. Craft. The pineal gland of the aging rodent: metabolic changes and reproductive consequences. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, and T.S. King. The pineal gland and its indole products: Their importance in the control of reproduction in mammals. In: The Pineal Gland, R. Relkin, Ed., Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp. 151-199, 1983.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Pineal indoles and analogues - effects on thyroxine in the Syrian hamster. In: The Pineal Gland: Endocrine Aspects, G.M. Brown and S.E. Wainwright. Eds., Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 251-255, 1984.



Reiter, R. J. and B. A. Richardson. The pineal and the Harderian glands: Evidence for mutual interactions. In: The Harderian Glands, R. A. Hoffman, S. Webb, M. Puig-Domingo and R. J. Reiter, Eds., Springer, Vienna, 1990.



Guest Lectures:



"Human Reproductive Endocrinology" to pre-nursing Anatomy and Physiology students, The University of Michigan-Flint, 1985.



"Flight Mechanics in Bats" to comparative physiology students, The University of Michigan-Flint, 1986.



"Clinically Related Anatomy of the Axilla". Invited speaker by the Department of Basic Sciences, the California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1991.



"Electromagnetic Radiation and Podiatry". Grand Rounds, California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1992.



"Melatonin and Diabetes mellitus". Department of Basic Sciences, California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1996.



Workshops:



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Upper Extremity and Neck." September 24 and 25, l988. Invited by the Michigan Physical Therapy Association Institute for Education and Research, Inc. At: The University of Michigan-Flint.



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Upper and Lower Limbs." March 18, 1989. Invited by the Eastern District Michigan Physical Therapy Association. At Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan.



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Heart and Lungs." October 12, 1994. Invited by the Clinical Anatomy Club of the California College of Podiatric Medicine. At the California College of Podiatric Medicine


Grants & Fellowships


Grants:
Faculty Development Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. May, 1989 - May, 1990. "The effects of exogenous melatonin on water metabolism in male Syrian hamsters. $1405.00.



Faculty Research Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. January, 1989 - January, 1990. "Quest for the elusive gamma counter." $5,000.00.



Research Partnership from the Office of the Director of Research - The University of Michigan-Flint. May, 1988 - August, 1989. $3,000.00.



Faculty Development Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. May 1985 - May, 1986. "Delayed embryonic development in the neotropical frugivorous bat, Artibeus jamaicensis: causative factors and reproductive advantages." $2900.00.



National Institute of Health Biomedical Research Support Grant 019521. May, 1985 - June, 1988. "Influence of Melatonin on Adenohypophyseal Cells." $3960.00.



Professional Honors:
The Philip Gardner, DPM Award, 2001.
Grand Marshal of Graduation as selected by the graduating class, California College of Podiatric Medicine, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007.



Outstanding Teacher Award. California College of Podiatric Medicine, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002.



Teacher of the Year Award. Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 1998, 1999.



Special Merit Award for Teaching. University of Michigan-Flint, 1985, 1987, 1990.



Distinguished Professor Award. University of Michigan-Flint, 1988.



National Institute of Health Public Service Award 1F32 ND05900. August, 1980 - August, 1982.



Graduate Student Program Development Fund Scholarship, University of Arizona, 1978 - 1980.
Sigma Xi Travel Scholarship, University of Arizona, 1978.


Professional and Community Service and Professional Memberships


Professional Activities:
Reviewer: American Journal of Anatomy. 1982 - Present.



Reviewer: Williams Wilkins Publisher. 1994 - Present.



Professional Societies:
American Association of Anatomists;
American Association for the Advancement of Science


Contact Info

Name
Bruce Richardson
PhD
Title
Associate Dean for Preclinical Affairs
Department
Doctor of Podiatric Medicine
Email

Faculty Profile

Bruce Richardson
Bruce
Richardson
PhD
Associate Dean for Preclinical Affairs
Doctor of Podiatric Medicine
BRichardson@samuelmerritt.edu
510-869-8729
I received my BA in Biology and MS in Zoology at San Diego State University. I earned my Doctorate in Anatomy with a minor in Physiology at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center. After which I completed a post-doctoral position at the Health Science Center at the University of Texas at San Antonio.
I have taught MD, OD, PT, PA, DDS, students as well as DPM students.


Physiology of the Pineal Gland
Biochemistry and Physiological



Effects of Melatonin
Morphological and physiological parameters of the mammalian adenohypophysis (immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay and TEM) and its role in reproduction.



Neuroendocrine-reproductive (esp. mammalian pineal and hypothalamus).
Neuroendocrine-renal (esp. mammalian pineal and hypothalamus).



Effects of very low frequency electromagnetic fields on the cell biology of the pineal gland and brain neurotransmitter metabolism.



Influences of very low frequency electromagnetic fields on wound healing.



Effects of Melatonin on Diabetes mellitus.



PM701 Human Anatomy I



PM709 Lower Extremity Anatomy



PM710 Human Anatomy II



PM780 Introduction to Human Anatomy/Human Embryology



Partial List:



Symposium on the Comparative Aspects of Reproduction in Chiroptera, Albuquerque, NM, 1978 (invited speaker).



Symposium on the Pineal and Its Hormones, Caribbean cruise, 1982 (invited speaker).Symposium on chronobiology; Ninth International Congress on Photobiology, Philadelphia, PA, 1984 (invited speaker).



Seventh International conference on Immunology and Aging, Crete, Greece, 2003 (invited speaker).



Journal Articles:



Richardson, B.A. The anterior pituitary and reproduction in bats. J. Reprod. Fert. 56: 379-389, 1979.



Blask, D.E., J.L. Nodelman, C.A. Leadem, and B.A. Richardson. Influence of exogeneously administered melatonin on the reproductive system and prolactin levels in underfed male rats. Biol. Reprod. 22: 507-512, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., L.Y. Johnson, R.W. Steger, B.A. Richardson, and L.J. Petterborg. Pineal biosynthetic activity and neuroendocrine physiology in the aging hamster and gerbil. Peptides 1: 69-77, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, B.N. Ferguson, and D.T. Dinh. Pineal melatonin rhythm: reduction in aging Syrian hamster. Science 210: 1372-1373, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, and E.C. Hurlbut. Pineal, retinal and Harderian gland melatonin in a diurnal species, the Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Neurosci. Lett. 22: 285-288, 1981.



Richardson, B.A., M.K. Vaughan, G.C. Brainard, J.J. Huerter, R. de los Santos and R.J. Reiter. Influence of morning melatonin injections on the antigonadotropic effects of afternoon melatonin administration in male and female hamsters. Neuroendocrinology 33: 112-117, 1981.



Richardson, B.A. Identification of prolactin and growth hormone cells in the pars distalis of the California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus. Am. J. Anat. 161: 427-440, 1981.



Blask, D.E., C.A. Leadem, and B.A. Richardson. Nutritional status, time of day and pinealectomy: factors influencing the sensitivity of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis of the rat to melatonin. Horm. Res. 14: 104-113, 1981.



Richardson, B.A. Localization of gonadotrophic hormones in the pituitary gland of the California leaf-nosed bat (Macrotus californicus). Cell Tiss. Res. 220: 115-123, 1981.



Vaughan, M.K., J.R. McGill, B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, P. Pevet, C. Neacsu, and R.J. Reiter. Responsiveness of a prolactin-secreting clonal cell line (2B8) of male rat hemipituitaries to incubation with arginine vasotocin, threonylserinyllysine (TSL) or a partially purified peptide (E5) from bovine pineal glands. Neuroendocrinology Lett. 3: 189-194, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., C.M. Craft, J.E. Johnson, Jr., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, G.M. Vaughan, and M.K. Vaughan. Age-associated reduction in nocturnal pineal melatonin levels in female rats. Endocrinology 109: 1295-1297, 1981.



Petterborg, L.J., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Effect of long or short photoperiod on pineal melatonin content in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Life Sci. 29: 1623-1627, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, and L.Y. Johnson. Pineal actions and mechanisms in reproductive physiology. Jikeikai Med. J., 28 (Suppl. 1): 35-46, 1981.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. The effect of different light intensities on pineal melatonin content. Brain Res. 233: 75-81, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., M.C. Powanda, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, L.Y. Johnson, R.J. Reiter. Chronic exposure to short photoperiod inhibits free thyroxine index and plasma levels of TSH, T4, Triiodothyronine (T3) and cholesterol in female Syrian hamsters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71A: 615-618, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, and K.Y. Kosub. A 15-minute light pulse during darkness prevents the antigonadotrophic action of afternoon melatonin injections in male hamsters. Int. J. Biometeor. 26: 295-303, 1982.



King, T.S., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Age-associated changes in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the male gerbil. Endocr. Res. Comm. 8: 253-262, 1982.



King, T.S., B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Regulation of rat pineal melatonin synthesis: effect of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Molec. Cell. Endocr. 25: 327-338, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, M.A. Karsek, and J.T. Hansen. Failure of room light to inhibit pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in a diurnal species, the Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). Neuroendocr. Lett. 4: 1-6, 1982.



Johnson, L.Y., M.K. Vaughan, B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. Variation in pineal melatonin content during the estrous cycle of the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 169: 416-419, 1982.



Richardson, B.A., T.S. King, L.J. Petterborg, M.K. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of large doses of melatonin administered in the afternoon on the neuroendocrine-reproductive system of female Syrian hamsters maintained either in a long or short photoperiod. Biomed. Res. 3: 61-69, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, R.J. Reiter, P. Pevet, and C. Neascu. Effects of a bovine pineal peptidic fraction (E5) on plasma and pituitary levels of LH, FSH and prolactin. Experientia 38: 871-872, 1982.



Vriend, J., B.A. Richardson, M.K. Vaughan, L.Y. Johnson, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of melatonin on thyroid physiology of female hamster. Neuroendocrinology 35: 79-85, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, and E.C. Hurlbut. Studies on pineal melatonin levels in a diurnal species, the Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus): Effects of light at night, propranolol administration or superior cervical ganglionectomy. J. Neural Transm. 54: 275-284, 1982.



Karasek, M., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, J.T. Hansen, and R.J. Reiter. Day-night differences in the number of pineal "synaptic" ribbons in two diurnal rodents, the chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and the ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Cell. Tiss. Res. 224: 689-692, 1982.



Brainard, G.C., L.J. Petterborg, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Pineal melatonin in Syrian hamsters: circadian and seasonal rhythms in animals maintained under laboratory and natural conditions. Neuroendocrinology 35: 342-348, 1982.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, C.M. Craft, M.C. Powanda, and R.J. Reiter. Interaction of aging, photoperiod and melatonin on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol levels in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Gerontology 28: 345-353, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, S.A. Matthews, S.J. Lane, and B.N. Ferguson. Rhythms in immunoreactive melatonin in the retina and Harderian gland of rats: Persistence after pinealectomy. Life Sci. 32: 1229-1236, 1983.



Spanel-Borowski, K., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, L.J. Petterborg, and R.J. Reiter. Follicular growth, intra-ovarian, and extra-ovarian oocyte release after daily injections of melatonin and 6-chloro-melatonin in the Syrian hamster. Amer. J. Anat. 167: 371-380, 1983.



Richardson, B.A., M.K. Vaughan, L.J. Petterborg, L.Y. Johnson, T.S. King, I. Smith, and R.J. Reiter. Natural and synthetic analogues of melatonin and related compounds. I. Effects on the reproductive system of the male Syrian hamster. J. Neural Trans. 56: 187-197, 1983.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.Y. Johnson, L.J. Petterborg, M.C. Powanda, R.J. Reiter, and I. Smith. Natural and synthetic analogues of melatonin. II. Effects on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol levels in male Syrian hamsters. J. Neural Trans. 56: 279-291, 1983.



Reiter, R.J., S. Steinlechner, B.A. Richardson, and T.S. King. Differential response of pineal melatonin levels to light at night in laboratory-raised and wild-captured 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). Life. Sci. 32: 2625-2629, 1983.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, G.C. Brainard, S. Steinlechner, and B.A. Richardson. Influence of light irradiance of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity, serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity, and radioimmunoassayble melatonin levels in the pineal gland of the diurnally active Richardson's ground squirrel. Brain Res. 288: 151-157, 1983.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, S.A. Matthews, and R.J. Reiter. The suppression of pineal melatonin content and N-acetyltransferase activity by different light irradiances in the Syrian hamster: A dose-response relationship. Endocrinology 113: 293-296, 1983.



Champney, T.H., G.C. Brainard, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Experimentally-induced diabetes reduces nocturnal pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 76: 199-201, 1983.



Richardson, B.A., P.J. Sheridan, and R.J. Reiter. The absence of nuclear uptake of sex steroid hormones in the pineal gland of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Neuroendocr. Letters. 5: 353-367, 1983.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, E.C. Hurlbut, S. Steinlechner, S.A. Matthews, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of various irradiances of artificial light, twilight and moonlight on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. J. Pineal Res., 1: 105-119, 1984.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, A.P. Holtrof, G.M. Vaughan, T.H. Champney, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of injections and/or chronic implants of melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine on plasma thyroid hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters. Neuroendocrinol. 39: 361-366, 1984.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Injections and/or implants of 6-chloromelatonin and melatonin: effects on plasma thyroid hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters. Biomed. Res., 5: 413-418, 1984.



Brainard, G.C., B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, and R.J. Reiter. The influence of different light spectra on the suppression of pineal melatonin content in the Syrian hamster. Brain Res. 294: 333-339, 1984.Vaughan, M.K., L.Y. Johnson, B.A. Richardson, E.G. Brieno, and R.J. Reiter. Acute injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TSH) stimulate prolactin release in unanesthetized adult male Syrian hamsters. Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 6: 49-52, 1984.



Steinlechner, S., T.S. King, T.H. Champney, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Pharmacological studies on the regulation on N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content of the pineal gland of the Syrian hamster. J. Pineal., Res., 2: 109-119, 1985.



Reiter, R.J., S. Steinlechner, and B.A. Richardson. Daytime and nighttime pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in male rats treated with indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 7: 281-287, 1985.



Champney, T.H., S.M. Webb, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Hormonal modulation of cyclic melatonin production in the pineal gland of rats and Syrian hamsters: effects of thyroidectomy or thyroxine implant. Chronobiol. Internat., 2: 177-183, 1985.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Reproductive effects of 6-chloromelatonin implants and/or injections in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Reprod. Fert., 78: 381-387, 1986.



Amador, A.G., B.A. Richardson, H.G. Klemcke, M.K. Vaughan, R.W. Steger, A. Bartke, and R.J. Reiter. Effects of long-term treatment with melatonin or melatonin plus ectopic pituitary transplants receptors in juvenile Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Reprod. Fert., 78: 557-564, 1986.



Reiter, R.J., T.S. King, S. Steinlechner, R.W. Steger, and B.A. Richardson. Tryptophan administration inhibits nocturnal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the rat pineal gland: Evidence that serotonin modulates melatonin production via a receptor-mediated mechanism. Neuroendocrinology, 52: 291-296, 1990.



Attia, A. M., B. A. Richardson, C. Rodriquez, M. H. Mostafa, S. A. Soliman, A. H. El-Sebae, and R. J. Reiter. Lindane may enhance nocturnal pineal N-acetyltransferase acitivity via ?-adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 554: 253-256, 1991.



Reiter, R. J., and B. A. Richardson. Static magnetic field effects on pineal indoleamine metabolism and possible biological consequences. FASEB J.. 6: 2283-2287, 1992.



Reiter, R. J., and B. A. Richardson. Some Perturbations that Disturb the Circadian Melatonin Rhythm. Chronobiology International, 9: 314-321, 1992.



Richardson, B. A., E. H. Studier, J. N. Stallone, and C. M. Kennedy. Effects of melatonin on water budgets and renal function in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). J. Pineal Res., 13: 49-59, 1992.



Moujir, F, B. A. Richardson, K. Yaga, and R. J. Reiter. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities and melatonin production in cultured rat but not in Syrian hamster pineal glands. J. Pineal Res., 12: 35-42, 1992.



Richardson, B. A., K. Yaga, R. J. Reiter, and D. J. Morton. Pulsed Static Magnetic Field Effects on In-vitro Pineal Indoleamine Metabolism. Biochim. Biophysica Acta, 1137: 59-64, 1992.



Yaga, K., R. J. Reiter, and B. A. Richardson. Tryptophan Loading Increases Daytime Serum Melatonin Levels in Intact and Pinealectomized Rats. Life Sci., 52: 1231-1238, 1993.



Richardson, B. A., K. Yaga, R. J. Reiter, and P. Hoover. Suppression of Nocturnal Pineal N-Acetyltransferase Activity and Melatonin Content by Inverted Magnetic Fields and Induced Eddy Currents. Intern. J. Neurosci., 69: 149-155, 1993.



Attia, A. M., M. H. Mostafa, B. A. Richardson, and R. J. Reiter. Changes in nocturnal pineal indoleamine metabolism in rats treated with parathion are prevented by beta-adrenergic antagonist administration. Toxicology, 97: 183-189, 1995.



Attia, A. M., M. H. Mostafa, B. A. Richardson, and R. J. Reiter. Night-time rise in rat pineal N-acetyltransferase due to carbaryl administration is reduced by propranolol treatment. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 8: 45-53, 1995.



Reviews, Chapters, Monographs:



Reiter, R.J. and B.A. Richardson. The physiology of melatonin. In: Biochemical and Medical Aspects of Trytophan Metabolism, O. Hagaishi, Y. Ishimura, and R. Kido, Ed., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 247-256, 1980.



Reiter, R.J., L.Y. Johnson, M.K. Vaughan, and B.A. Richardson. Pineal constituents and reproductive physiology. In: Physiopathology of Endocrine Diseases and Mechanisms of Hormone Action, D.P. Cardinali, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 163-178, 1981.



Reiter, R.J., W.K. Trakulrungsi, C. Trakulrungsi, J. Vriend, W.W. Morgan, M.K. Vaughan, L.Y. Johnson, and B.A. Richardson. Pineal melatonin production: endocrine and age effects. In: Developmental Neurobiology of the Melatonin Rhythm Generating System, D.C. Klein, Ed., Karger Basel, in press.



Hurlbut, E.C., T.S. King, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. The effects of the light:dark cycle and sympathetically-active drugs on pineal N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the Richardson's ground squirrel, Spermophilus richardsonii. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 45-56, 1982.



King, T.S., R.W. Steger, B.A. Richardson, and R.J. Reiter. Interaction between pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and beta-adrenergetic receptors in the rat pineal gland. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 95-106, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., E.C. Hurlbut, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, and L.C.H. Wang. Studies on the regulation of pineal melatonin production in the Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 57-66, 1982.



Richardson, B.A., L.J. Petterborg, M.K. Vaughan, T.S. King, and R.J. Reiter. The effect of twice daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration and/or renal pituitary homografts on melatonin-induced gonadal atrophy in male Syrian hamsters. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, pp. 129-142, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., J. Vriend, M.K. Vaughan, W.W. Morgan, B.A. Richardson, T.S. King, S.A. Matthews, and C.M. Craft. The pineal gland of the aging rodent: metabolic changes and reproductive consequences. In: The Pineal and Its Hormones, R.J. Reiter, Ed., Alan Liss, New York, 1982.



Reiter, R.J., B.A. Richardson, and T.S. King. The pineal gland and its indole products: Their importance in the control of reproduction in mammals. In: The Pineal Gland, R. Relkin, Ed., Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp. 151-199, 1983.



Vaughan, M.K., B.A. Richardson, L.J. Petterborg, G.M. Vaughan, and R.J. Reiter. Pineal indoles and analogues - effects on thyroxine in the Syrian hamster. In: The Pineal Gland: Endocrine Aspects, G.M. Brown and S.E. Wainwright. Eds., Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 251-255, 1984.



Reiter, R. J. and B. A. Richardson. The pineal and the Harderian glands: Evidence for mutual interactions. In: The Harderian Glands, R. A. Hoffman, S. Webb, M. Puig-Domingo and R. J. Reiter, Eds., Springer, Vienna, 1990.



Guest Lectures:



"Human Reproductive Endocrinology" to pre-nursing Anatomy and Physiology students, The University of Michigan-Flint, 1985.



"Flight Mechanics in Bats" to comparative physiology students, The University of Michigan-Flint, 1986.



"Clinically Related Anatomy of the Axilla". Invited speaker by the Department of Basic Sciences, the California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1991.



"Electromagnetic Radiation and Podiatry". Grand Rounds, California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1992.



"Melatonin and Diabetes mellitus". Department of Basic Sciences, California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, California, 1996.



Workshops:



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Upper Extremity and Neck." September 24 and 25, l988. Invited by the Michigan Physical Therapy Association Institute for Education and Research, Inc. At: The University of Michigan-Flint.



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Upper and Lower Limbs." March 18, 1989. Invited by the Eastern District Michigan Physical Therapy Association. At Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan.



"A Review of the Clinical Anatomy of the Heart and Lungs." October 12, 1994. Invited by the Clinical Anatomy Club of the California College of Podiatric Medicine. At the California College of Podiatric Medicine



Grants:
Faculty Development Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. May, 1989 - May, 1990. "The effects of exogenous melatonin on water metabolism in male Syrian hamsters. $1405.00.



Faculty Research Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. January, 1989 - January, 1990. "Quest for the elusive gamma counter." $5,000.00.



Research Partnership from the Office of the Director of Research - The University of Michigan-Flint. May, 1988 - August, 1989. $3,000.00.



Faculty Development Grant - The University of Michigan-Flint. May 1985 - May, 1986. "Delayed embryonic development in the neotropical frugivorous bat, Artibeus jamaicensis: causative factors and reproductive advantages." $2900.00.



National Institute of Health Biomedical Research Support Grant 019521. May, 1985 - June, 1988. "Influence of Melatonin on Adenohypophyseal Cells." $3960.00.



Professional Honors:
The Philip Gardner, DPM Award, 2001.
Grand Marshal of Graduation as selected by the graduating class, California College of Podiatric Medicine, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007.



Outstanding Teacher Award. California College of Podiatric Medicine, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002.



Teacher of the Year Award. Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 1998, 1999.



Special Merit Award for Teaching. University of Michigan-Flint, 1985, 1987, 1990.



Distinguished Professor Award. University of Michigan-Flint, 1988.



National Institute of Health Public Service Award 1F32 ND05900. August, 1980 - August, 1982.



Graduate Student Program Development Fund Scholarship, University of Arizona, 1978 - 1980.
Sigma Xi Travel Scholarship, University of Arizona, 1978.



Professional Activities:
Reviewer: American Journal of Anatomy. 1982 - Present.



Reviewer: Williams Wilkins Publisher. 1994 - Present.



Professional Societies:
American Association of Anatomists;
American Association for the Advancement of Science


History

Member for
7 years 5 months